Asia's Environmental Crisis
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As rapidly developing Asian countries join the global economy, they are being forced to confront the environmental degradation that accompanies such accelerated growth. In this volume, a group of contributors explores the intersection of politics, economics, society and the environment in Asia.
danger of siltation.35 The removal of trees and their water retaining capacity combined with overzealous reclamation of lakes has made flooding more frequent: since 1949 so-called natural catastrophes have increased in frequency.36 It has been argued, therefore, that reforestation of the upper watershed of the Changjiang would provide a natural water storage capacity equivalent to the TGP reservoir and do a better job of flood control.37 Because of the siltation problem, reforestation must be
refrigerators.79 Asia produces much of the world's textiles and, as a result, is also the consumer of the bulk of dyestuffs, which produce high levels of air and water pollution as well as other hazards for those using them. Java provides an example of some of the worst pollution in the dye and textile industries, but it is also the site of important efforts to overcome these problems. A Ciba-Geigy plant near Jakarta is notable for its innovative methods of waste water and dye recycling.80
the national heartlands, but with regard to the territorial integrity of the periphery. Territorial integrity is maintained in these cases by pursuing national unity through the denial of political processes for consent by the frontier peoples, simply because they are suspected of disloyalty as a result of their commitment to distinct national identities. Natural solutions would have been a federal system in the case of Indonesia, given its great national diversity, and of an autonomous region in
caste peasants) is possibly the best known of the movements of this kind in India. The symbolism of hugging the trees to save them that the Chipko movement conveys contrasts sharply with the so-called "felling craze" in Jharkhand and what has been called "a periodical sort of frenzy" of tree-felling by adivasis in Bastar.6 The historical and social contexts in which these forms of protest have emerged are different. In addition, the last two cases present a long history of dispossession and
small-scale miners. 39. Rowan Callick, "Gold miners lead trading with Indonesia," in Australian Financial Review, 2 November 1987, p. 33. 40. Barbara Crossette, "Indonesia gripped by gold fever," in International Herald Tribune, 16 February 1987, pp. 7,10. 41. Peter Fish, in Far Eastern Economic Review, 6 October 1978, p. 83. 42. Theodore Pa nay o toy, "Natural resource management for economic development: Lessons from Southeast Asian experience with special reference to Thailand," in M. bin