China: A History (Volume 2): From the Great Qing Empire through The People's Republic of China, (1644 - 2009)
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
Available in one or two volumes, this accessible, yet rigorous, introduction to the political, social, and cultural history of China provides a balanced and thoughtful account of the development of Chinese civilization from its beginnings to the present day.
Each volume includes ample illustrations, a full complement of maps, a chronological table, extensive notes, recommendations for further reading and an index.
Volume 1: From Neolithic Cultures through the Great Qing Empire (10,000 BCE―1799). Volume 2: From the Great Qing Empire through the People's Republic of China (1644―2009).
each wanted to achieve national unity on his own terms. Their armies, the best of which were well-equipped with Western and Japanese weapons, and even airplanes, sold by international arms dealers, were the instruments with which they hoped to achieve their goals.16 As a result, the warlord period saw hundreds of small conflicts. From 1920 to 1927 three major warlord confederations fought four major wars in 1920, 1922, 1924, and 1926. In these wars, the Zhili Clique, the Anhui Clique, and Zhang
Supported by agricultural laborers working large tracts of land, the Shang elite were loosely ruled by kings, who practiced divination using tortoise shells and cattle scapulae, on which they would sometimes inscribe the questions asked of their ancestors, the answer divined, and occasionally even the actual outcome 18 From Neolithic Cultures to the Great Qing Empire Major Neolithic cultures, 5000–3000 BCE. of events. These “oracle bones,” dated to around 1200 BCE, are the earliest written
regional warlords, although not abandoning their mutual suspicion, worked more or less cooperatively in a national struggle against the Japanese invader. The years 1941 through 1945 were marked by a collapse of mutual cooperation within China. These years also saw a significant increase in foreign involvement. With Japan’s attack on the American fleet at Pearl Harbor on 8 December 1941, China’s War of Resistance Against Japan became a part of World War II. During the first stage of the war
of Shanghai in 1932 (a thinly disguised criticism of Chiang Kai-shek’s accomodationist policies). Communists also moved studios in the direction of making films that took up social issues. A movie based on Communist author Mao Dun’s (1896–1981) story “Spring Silkworms,” for example, dealt with the plight of a Zhejiang silkworm-raising family whose livelihood is destroyed by Japanese manipulation of the Shanghai silk industry. In the silent film The Goddess, a virtuous prostitute tries to send her
elite families were now of pastoral background), the lands of China’s Inner Asian periphery, and places beyond, most notably India. Buddhism and related elements of South and Central Asian culture (styles of art and music, food and medicine, fashion and architecture) had already begun to enter China Proper via the Silk Road from India and Central Asia and the maritime trade from Southeast Asia to the port of Guangzhou (Canton). During the period of division the transference of Buddhism and other