Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Infectious Diseases

Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Infectious Diseases

Language: English

Pages: 985

ISBN: 0838514944

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Infectious Diseases

Language: English

Pages: 985

ISBN: 0838514944

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


Internationally renowned infectious disease experts offer guidance in recognizing, diagnosing, treating, and preventing one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Clinically focused and comprehensive, the book covers the essentials of diagnosis and syndromes in children and adults. Examines antimicrobial resistance and balances expert, practice-oriented coverage with just the right amount of microbiology concepts.

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because it does not contain a high number of phagocytes and lacks opsonins and complements. Microorganisms enter the pleural space either by contiguous spread from an infected lung, perforated esophagus, mediastinum, or subdiaphragmatic structures or by direct entry as a result of trauma, thoracic surgery, or thoracentesis. The most common cause of a parapneumonic effusion or empyema is an underlying pneumonia. Less often, infection may spread from a retropharyngeal, retroperitoneal, vertebral,

between T cells and APCs, a complex cascade of intracellular events ensues. These events lead to T-cell differentiation and T-cell replication with clonal expansion. The latter is mediated by the T-cell growth factor, IL-2, which is secreted upon T-cell activation. The immunosuppressant antibiotic cyclosporin A inhibits IL-2 secretion by T cells by blocking the intracellular calcium-dependent functions in the complex cascade during T-cell activation. Microbial superantigens activate T cells.

between T cells and APCs, a complex cascade of intracellular events ensues. These events lead to T-cell differentiation and T-cell replication with clonal expansion. The latter is mediated by the T-cell growth factor, IL-2, which is secreted upon T-cell activation. The immunosuppressant antibiotic cyclosporin A inhibits IL-2 secretion by T cells by blocking the intracellular calcium-dependent functions in the complex cascade during T-cell activation. Microbial superantigens activate T cells.

variations on this theme become apparent. Vibrio spp., for example, express a protein in the cytoplasmic membrane, ToxR, that acts as both sensor (of osmolarity) and response regulator (of porin expression) (Figure 3-1). This protein is expressed by most marine vibrios. For Vibrio cholerae, the expansion of its preferred environments to include the human intestinal tract has brought with it the means to acquire cholera toxin genes (via a bacteriophage) and to acquire an intestinal attachment

placebo-controlled trials. N Engl J Med 1988;319:964. Lee BL et al: Infectious complications with respiratory pathogens despite ciprofloxacin therapy. N Engl J Med 1991;325:520. Lemer PI: Neurological manifestations of infective endocarditis. In Aminoff MJ: Neurology and General Medicine, 2nd ed. Churchill Livingstone, 1995, p. 97. Levy RM, Bredesen DE, Rosenblum ML: Neurological manifestations of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): experience at U.C.S.F. and review of the literature.

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