Depression: Causes and Treatment, 2nd Edition
Aaron T. Beck, Brad A. Alford
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
More than forty years ago, Dr. Aaron T. Beck's pioneering Depression: Causes and Treatment presented the first comprehensive account of all aspects of depression and introduced cognitive therapy to health care providers and patients struggling with one of the most common and devastating diseases of the modern age. Since that classic text first appeared, the appreciation of the multifaceted nature of mood disorders has grown, and the phenomenological and biological aspects of psychology are increasingly seen as intertwined. Taking these developments into account, Beck and his colleague Brad A. Alford have written a second edition of Depression that will help patients and caregivers understand depression as a cognitive disorder.
The new edition of Depression builds on the original research and approach of the seminal first edition, including the tests of Freud's theory that led to a new system of psychological theory and therapy, one that addresses the negative schema and automatic thoughts that can trap people in painful emotional states. Beck and Alford examine selected scientific tests and randomized controlled trials that have enhanced the cognitive approach since the time it was first introduced.
Incorporating accepted changes in the definitions and categories of the various mood disorders into its discussion, Depression addresses the treatment role of revolutionary drugs, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in relation to cognitive approaches. Beck and Alford explore research on neurotrophic and neurogenesis theories of depression. They also report on advances in psychosocial treatment of depression, including the value of cognitive therapy in the prevention of relapse.
Phosphorus Nitrogenous Substances Lipoidal Substances Chlorides Critique of Studies MORE RECENT STUDIES Differences Between Manic and Depressive Phases Studies of Continued Cycles Studies During Depressive Episodes An Experimental Test of Biological Markers Responses of Normal Subjects to Stress Endocrine Studies STEROID METABOLISM THYROID FUNCTION Autonomic Function BLOOD PRESSURE RESPONSES TO MECHOLYL SALIVATION STUDIES Critique of Salivation Studies Neurophysiological Studies
really think I’m smart or he would have called on me.” If the professor complimented other students, she would have the thought that the professor had a low opinion of her. Another patient would make a characteristic negative attribution while driving. If another driver passed him, he would think, “He thinks I’m the kind of person who can be pushed around.” He would have the same thought if he was kept waiting by a salesperson or a server in a restaurant. Similar negative attributions are often
the overall approach used by Kiloh and Garside in their study of outpatients. Carney and his coworkers studied 129 inpatient depressives treated with ECT. All patients were followed up for three months, and 108 patients were followed for six months. Initially, all were scored for the presence or absence of 35 features considered to discriminate between endogenous and neurotic depressions. Diagnoses were made before or shortly after treatment was started. Improvement was rated on a four-point
chronic in some cases and acute in others. Examples listed by the author included the loss of a job, a state of anxiety over sudden promotion, a difficult love affair, an alien environment, and hostile in-laws. Kasanin stated that the psychosis was usually ushered in by a latent depression, and a certain amount of rumination persisted for some time until the dramatic schizophrenic picture appeared. He observed that he was able to reconstruct the psychological significance of the psychosis
was found). The most striking feature of the report is that in not a single instance did the co-twin of a schizophrenic patient also have schizophrenia; the degree of concordance was zero! This finding is remarkable in view of Kallmann’s report of a corrected expectancy rate for schizophrenics of 86.2 percent. The relevance of Tienari’s findings to the twin studies of depression is that Kallmann used the same techniques for twinship ascertainment, zygosity determination, and diagnostic labeling