Enabling Things to Talk: Designing IoT solutions with the IoT Architectural Reference Model
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The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging network superstructure that will connect physical resources and actual users. It will support an ecosystem of smart applications and services bringing hyper-connectivity to our society by using augmented and rich interfaces. Whereas in the beginning IoT referred to the advent of barcodes and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), which helped to automate inventory, tracking and basic identification, today IoT is characterized by a dynamic trend toward connecting smart sensors, objects, devices, data and applications. The next step will be “cognitive IoT,” facilitating object and data re-use across application domains and leveraging hyper-connectivity, interoperability solutions and semantically enriched information distribution.
The Architectural Reference Model (ARM), presented in this book by the members of the IoT-A project team driving this harmonization effort, makes it possible to connect vertically closed systems, architectures and application areas so as to create open interoperable systems and integrated environments and platforms. It constitutes a foundation from which software companies can capitalize on the benefits of developing consumer-oriented platforms including hardware, software and services.
The material is structured in two parts. Part A introduces the general concepts developed for and applied in the ARM. It is aimed at end users who want to use IoT technologies, managers interested in understanding the opportunities generated by these novel technologies, and system architects who are interested in an overview of the underlying basic models. It also includes several case studies to illustrate how the ARM has been used in real-life scenarios. Part B then addresses the topic at a more detailed technical level and is targeted at readers with a more scientific or technical background. It provides in-depth guidance on the ARM, including a detailed description of a process for generating concrete architectures, as well as reference manuals with guidelines on how to use the various models and perspectives presented to create a concrete architecture. Furthermore, best practices and tips on how system engineers can use the ARM to develop specific IoT architectures for dedicated IoT solutions are illustrated and exemplified in reverse mapping exercises of existing standards and platforms.
and J.W. Walewski Chapter 8 “IoT Reference Architecture” Provides architectural views and perspectives that are relevant for IoT systems. After a short introduction about views and perspectives the chapter presents the IoT Functional View, the IoT Information View and the Deployment & Operation View of the ARM. As explained in Sect. 8.3 of that chapter, the functional view of a concrete architecture typically consists of three viewpoints: functional decomposition (viz. the logical structure),
the physical layer, as well as the physical connections between these components. This view is also known as the deployment view.” (Wikipedia 2013a; 4+1 view). As Fig. 6.1 implies, we are not using the term physical view for the deployment view in order to avoid semantic tension with the Physical Entity View. The Physical Entity View does of course refer to the Physical Entity in the IoT Domain Model (see Sects. 7.3.2 and 9.1). The Physical Entity is “any physical object that is relevant from a
gathering, processing, storage and retrieval of information and as such is used as a basis for defining the functional interfaces of the IoT system. Figure 7.10 shows the relation between the Domain Model concepts and the IoT Information Model elements. The main Domain Model concepts that are explicitly represented in an IoT system are the Virtual Entity and the service. The latter also comprises aspects of the Resource and the Device. As the Virtual Entity is the representation of the Physical
Runner Node communicate using ZigBee technology with the Alarm Service deployed in a server farm thanks to the two gateways. While the actual configuration of the different protocol stacks is out of the scope of the model, the overall behaviour of the system can be modelled according to the five interoperability aspects described above. 220.127.116.11 Virtual Configuration In this configuration the IoT Communication Model aims at describing the overall communication behaviour of a system, where the
known links, providing a strong tool to avoid over-dimensioning the gateways. Indeed, this is extremely useful when designing a constrained network and its ingress and its egress. It is important to point out that there is a distinction between the channel model in the current Internet and that of the IoT. The former is depicted in Fig. 7.21 below, where the Internet block acts as a black-box summarising every channel transformation that may happen between the two gateways. To proceed in