German Romance III: Iwein, or The Knight with the Lion (Arthurian Archives)
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Iwein, or The Knight with the Lion, is a free Middle High German adaptation of Chrétien de Troyes' Old French Arthurian romance, Yvain. Written c.1200 by a Swabian knight, Hartmann von Aue, Iwein charts the development towards maturity of a young knight who falls into error, neglecting his hard-won wife by devoting himself excessively to chivalric pursuits. This parallel-text edition, offering the first English translation, is based on one of the two earliest complete manuscripts, Giessen, University Library, no. 97 (Iwein B), dating from the second quarter of the thirteenth century. It contains a large number of lines, particularly in the later stages of the poem, which are not present in the other early manuscript, A (Heidelberg, cpg 397). These show a special interest in the woman's side of the story, expanding a passage concerned with embroidery and weaving, and adding a marriage for the maidservant Lunet, whose cunning brings about the reconciliation between Iwein and her mistress, Laudine. The authorship of these passages is uncertain, but they may be Hartmann's own revision of his text. The volume is completed with an introduction, notes and bibliography. Dr CYRIL EDWARDS is Senior Research Fellow of the Faculty of Medieval and Modern Languages, University of Oxford.
because of your custom of always sparing the base, and bearing enmity towards the worthy. Your scolding amounts to praise in the eyes of all the wise. If you hadn’t spoken these words you would indeed have burst, and that would have been a good thing, God knows, for you are full of bitter poison, in which your heart floats and acts against your honour.’ Kay could not put up with such anger. He said: ‘Lady, that is enough. Indeed, you have said too much to me of this, and if you had suppressed
He said: “If a man does me no harm, he shall have me as his friend.” “Can you tell me, then, what kind of creature you are?” “A man, as you now behold.” “Now tell me what your office is.” “I stand guard over these animals here.” “Now tell me, do they do you no harm?” “They would praise it, if I did them no harm!” “Indeed, are they afraid of you?” “‘I have custody over them and they fear me as their lord and master.” “Tell me, how can your authority over them and your surveillance prevent them
had, in her base mind, apportioned herself to many a poor place where no-one asked for her. She has entirely removed herself from there now and has headed off elsewhere, with all her power, to the end that her mastery may be all the greater elsewhere. One thing is regrettable: since Love has such great power, that she subjugates whomsoever she wishes, and compels all kings who are now in existence, more easily than a child, to do her will – yet she is base in nature, in that she has ever
less largely in Parzival than Erec, but there are two references to Lûnête (Lûnet in Iwein B), which allude to the central problem that faced Hartmann in his adaptation of Chrétien. Hartmann, as will be seen below, makes every possible effort to make Laudîne, the widow who marries her husband’s murderer, a more sympathetic character than the heroine of his source. Twice Laudîne, who follows Lûnête’s advice in marrying Iwein, is contrasted unfavourably with Sigune, a female character on whom
date to Hartmann’s lifetime, it would seem illogical to attempt, in an edition of a single manuscript, to take the language further back to a ‘classical’ norm which may or may not have existed. Hence the policy adopted here has been one of minimal normalisation. This policy applies particularly to the consonants; the manuscript is characterised by frequent occurrence of ch for k in both initial and final position, an Upper German 21 Hartmann von Aue. Changing Perspectives. London Hartmann