Hanoverian London, 1714-1808
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In this survey of the life of London throughout the eighteenth century, Professor Rude outlines the main themes in the development of the metropolis, and deals with every aspect of the greatest capital city in Europe: the physical growth of the town both as a capital and as a residential area; economic life and communications; social classes, social life and the arts; the small traders, craftsmen wage-earners and the poor; religion and the churches; government and administration, and the bewildering medley of controlling and contending bodies; the role of London in the political and economic life of the nation; the machinery of political manipulation; the almost continuous opposition to the Court and government; the outbreaks of social protest from below; trades unions, strikes, industrial riots and the mob; the emergence of Radicalism and the phenomenon of Wilkes; the changing pattern of London during the French Wars and on the brink of the nineteenth century.
Westminster Daniel Defoe, A Tour Through the Whole Island ofGreat Britain W. S. Lewis, Three Tours through Londonin the Years 1748, 1776, 1797 TkeJourna/oftkeRev.Jokn Wesley,A.M., ed. N. Cumock Wheatley and Cunningham H. B. Wheatley and P. Cunningham, Wilkes and Liberty London Past and Present George Rude, Wilkes and Liberty. A Social Study of1763 to 1774 1 The Growth of the Metropolis ONG THE significant features of London's development during he eighteenth century was its continued
fact, provided one more opportunity for men of fashion to place a bet. In July 1764, runs a press report, Chairman Brooker and Brick-Street Jack fought it out in a field near Knightsbridge. 'The battle was the most desperate ever known, and, during the contest, several hundred pounds were won and lost.' 1 Among the more violent sports on which gentlemen betted for high wagers were cock-fighting, and bull- and bear-baiting. There were bear gardens in Marylebone Gardens and at the more
the Methodist impact on London was never as great as it was in Cornwall, Staffordshire, the West Riding or the coalfields, the history of Methodism, during Wesley's lifetime, was always intimately connected with the Church in the metro polis. Some of John Wesley's earliest sermons were given, through his father's High Church influence, in the churches of St Andrew Holborn, St Clement Danes and St Lawrence Jewry, where he preached in 1738; and it was after such churches became closed to him that
London, with its elaborate machinery of government based on the twin Courts at the Guildhall and the wards and precincts in the localities, the functions of the parish were limited to the election of churchwardens, the management and repair of the church and the distribution of parish charities; the more important business ofgovernment - such as lighting, paving, cleansing and sanitation - was handled, at various levels, by the Corporation. In other parts of the metropolis, a large part of these
pro-Radical vote of 1 12 to 76.2 There were other means as well whereby radical or anti-ministerial opinions could be formed. One was to win support for the City's policies across its boundaries or even in districts far removed from the metropolis itself. Thus, City aldermen and officers often appeared on the commissions of the peace of other counties; and, in Wilkes's day, among City oppon ents of government, William Beckford and James Townsend were justices in Middlesex; John Sawbridge and