History of Germany, 1780-1918: The Long Nineteenth Century (Blackwell Classic Histories of Europe)
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This history offers a powerful and original account of Germany from the eve of the French Revolution to the end of World War One.
- Written by a leading German historian who has transformed the historiography of modern Germany over the past two decades.
- Covers the whole of the long nineteenth century and emphasizes continuities through this period.
- Brings together political, social and cultural history.
- Combines a comprehensive account with a feel for the human dimension and the history of everyday life.
- Accessible to non-specialists, thought-provoking and entertaining.
- The updated second edition includes a revised bibliography.
century. In other words, cartels were created in had times and good: they were a response to the falling profit rates and sense of anxiety in the depression years, but also to growing demands for capital investment and the costs of technical innovation. They were aggressive as well as defensive. By 1905, there were more than 350 cartels. The most important were, predictably, in the most concentrated branches where this kind of market control was easiest: coal, iron, steel, electrochemicals. One
youthful Germany. The age-cohorts most important for the workforce (15-2.o and 2.1-45) accounted for a higher proportion of the population in 1911 than at any time in the previous forty years. There were more Germans in their late teens than there would ever be again in the twentieth century, even after the post-1945 `baby-boom', and four-fifths of the population were 45 or younger. The rate of natural increase was the most important factor, but this was also the period when Germany changed from
Jews who lived there from acquiring it - although not stripping citizenship from those who already had it. Ultranationalist and racist ideas, finally, were a binding element in the new right that crystallized in the last years before 1914, stretching from the Conservatives through the Mittelstand movement to the ultranationalists. The new right and its programme were to gain ground during the war. Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914, triggering
Flockerzie, `State-Building and Nation-Building in the "Third Germany": Saxony after the Congress of Vienna', Central European History, z4 (1991), PP. 281, 283-4-- ro. See H. Rubner, Forstgeschichte im Zeitalter der industriellen Revolution (Berlin, 1967). For the motif of the `northern' forest, see many of the great works of Caspar David Friedrich, or those of his follower, Carl Gustav Carus. i i. E. D. Brose, The Politics of Technological Change in Prussia (Princeton, NJ, 1993); W. Fischer,
reception, this was not always so. Businessmen welcomed the promotion of commerce and communications, but chafed at bureaucratic regulation. The more class-conscious merchants and entrepreneurs wondered why, if economic restrictions could be loosened, political controls could not also be relaxed. Among the educated middle classes, general approval for the improving' role of the state was offset by dislike of its restrictive activities. But the official mind was convinced that true liberty was