Industrialization in Nineteenth Century Europe

Industrialization in Nineteenth Century Europe

Tom Kemp

Language: English

Pages: 233

ISBN: 0582493846

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

Industrialization in Nineteenth Century Europe

Tom Kemp

Language: English

Pages: 233

ISBN: 0582493846

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


Publish Year note: First published 1974 by Longman Publishing Group
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Written for the layman as well as the economic historian this famous and much-used book not only presents a general synthesis of the pattern of European industrialisation; it also provides material for a comparative study by illustrating, in separate case studies, the specific characteristics of development in Britain, France, Germany, Russia and Italy.

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of bureaucratic direction and control as administrative techniques and the zeal (often more apparent than real) of the officials of the Crown made possible. The state, it is true, did initiate some industrial enterprises and its officials acted as entrepreneurs in default of private initiative. Under Frederick’s guidance, the bureaucracy kept an eye on private business efforts. Advances of money were made to industries which it was thought desirable to encourage and some enterprises were rescued

potentialities of the Zollverein to be realized internal transport would have to be improved. Road transport over long distances was expensive. River transport, especially on the Rhine, although it developed tremendously and could be supplemented by canals, had definite geographical limitations. That is why the availability of the railway at this stage was of such decisive importance. The railway was the product of advanced industrial technology, but it could be introduced into relatively

majority of the peasant population was still in a servile condition. The bonds of serfdom, which had been drawn tighter in the course of the eighteenth century, had shown little sign of relaxation in the first half of the nineteenth. It is true that in the non-black earth areas compulsory labour services were on the decline and many peasants were performing wage work. However, they were still subject to the proprietary rights of the lords to whom part of their earnings were paid. It is true that

potentially critical. At the same time, the very backwardness of the society invited criticism and efforts to speed the process of reform or to revolutionize it. But criticism of the mildest sort was made difficult by censorship and repression and tended to push the intelligentsia, especially its youthful contingents in the schools and universities, towards revolution. Of itself the intelligentsia was powerless to bring about changes; it looked to the people, and especially to the peasantry, to

produce, notably sugar-beet refining and distilleries. By comparison with western Europe and the United States Russian industry lagged very much behind. Its advanced sectors remained outposts in a vast ocean of backward peasant agriculture and small-scale production carried on by hand methods in cottages and small workshops. The preparation for subsequent development took place to a large extent in modest ways: in the spread of the putting-out system, the dependence of many peasants on

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