Plate Tectonics & Crustal Evolution, Third Edition

Plate Tectonics & Crustal Evolution, Third Edition

Kent C. Condie

Language: English

Pages: 504

ISBN: 0080348734

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

Plate Tectonics & Crustal Evolution, Third Edition

Kent C. Condie

Language: English

Pages: 504

ISBN: 0080348734

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


This substantially revised edition includes recently published information relating to plate tectonics and continental origin. A large number of new figures have been added, and new sections included on meteorites, seismic tomography, mantle convection, accretionary terranes, mantle sources and evolution, continental growth, secular changes in Earth history, also a new chapter on exogenic Earth systems. In addition the following topics have been substantially revised: lunar origin, global gravity, origin of the core, metamorphism, plate boundaries, hotspots, tectonic settings, and magma associations. Among the new features the Tectonic Map of the World has also been updated.

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formed as iron segregated in the mantle by settling of molten droplets in a silicate magma ocean, sinking of diapirs of molten iron, and/or by The Earth's mantle and core downward percolation of iron-oxygen alloy liquids. Some of the metal in the core may have come from a Mars-sized planet that collided with the Earth during core formation. As the Earth began to cool, the inner core began to form as iron in the core crystallized and sank. Suggestions for further reading Campbell, I. H. and

Australia and South Africa, respectively, dated at 2.75-2.7 Ga. These correlate with the first greenstone age maximum. Flood basalts are also recognized in the Wyloo Group in Western Australia and the Jatulian in Scandinavia at about 2.1-2.0 Ga corresponding to the second maximum of greenstone ages. Flood basalts also occur at about 1.8 Ga (in the Belcher Islands) and 1.27 Ga (Coppermine River basalts) in the Canadian shield, both of which lie at or close to peak greenstone activity. Although

relatively small number of occurrences are known of Proterozoic and Paleozoic age. Several factors probably contribute to a decrease in the proportion of alkaline igneous rocks in the Precambrian. In part contributing to this distribution is the fact that continental alkaline igneous centres are small and they are readily removed during uplift and erosion. Veizer et al. (1992) show, for instance, the half-life for the loss of carbonatites by erosion is only about 450 My. Hence, they have a low

the overprinting of the final thermal event. A second terrane B could be sutured to A during this event (S in Figure 2.16b), and both domains exhumed together. It is clear from these examples that much or all of a complex thermal history can be erased by the last thermal event, producing an apparent gap in a cratonization cooling curve. Cooling Age Te Processes in the continental crust Rheology The behaviour of the continental crust under stress depends chiefly on the temperature and the

delayed at the 660-km discontinuity, tomographic images suggest that all modem slabs eventually sink into the lower mantle. Thus, there is no evidence for layered convection in the Earth in terms of slab distributions in the mantle. The lower mantle General features High-pressure experimental studies clearly suggest that Mg perovskite is the dominant phase in the lower mantle (Table 4.2). However, it is still not clear if the seismic properties of the lower mantle necessitate a change in major

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