Resistance and Persuasion
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Resistance and Persuasion is the first book to analyze the nature of resistance and demonstrate how it can be reduced, overcome, or used to promote persuasion. By examining resistance, and providing strategies for overcoming it, this new book generates insight into new facets of influence and persuasion. With contributions from the leaders in the field, this book presents original ideas and research that demonstrate how understanding resistance can improve persuasion, compliance, and social influence. Many of the authors present their research for the first time. Four faces of resistance are identified: reactance, distrust, scrutiny, and inertia. The concluding chapter summarizes the book's theoretical contributions and establishes a resistance-based research agenda for persuasion and attitude change. This new book helps to establish resistance as a legitimate sub-field of persuasion that is equal in force to influence.
Resistance and Persuasion offers many new revelations about persuasion:
*Acknowledging resistance helps to reduce it.
*Raising reactance makes a strong message more persuasive.
*Putting arguments into a narrative increases their influence.
*Identifying illegitimate sources of information strengthens the influence of legitimate sources.
*Looking ahead reduces resistance to persuasive attempts.
This volume will appeal to researchers and students from a variety of disciplines including social, cognitive, and health psychology, communication, marketing, political science, journalism, and education.
addressed through the inclusion of no-message control conditions for the nonprejudiced affirmation topic. That is, we included two no-message control groups who either did or did not affirm the self on the trait nonprejudiced. Following this manipulation, both groups immediately reported their attitudes toward the affirmative action policy. An analysis comparing the no-message groups with the message groups in the non- prejudiced topic condition revealed a significant Attitude Measure ϫ
about the manipulativeness of the authority appeals in the example ads. They differed only in information sug- gesting that participants would be susceptible to that manipulation. To determine whether participants exposed to the treatment (a) mindlessly accepted or rejected the advertisements based on the legitimacy of the authority, or (b) incorporated the legitimacy of the authority into an overall appraisal of the ads, we ran a four-way (feature strength by feature number by treatment by
indicated that persons in the relevant priming condition were more resistant to the strong counterarguments than persons in the irrelevant prime condition. Although the results are tentative and await more extensive analyses, the two experiments indicate that priming affects elaboration and that the attitudes based 290 HAUGTVEDT ET AL. on elaboration were less influenced by counterpersuasive messages. A match between prime and target ad is beneficial if the advertising message is deemed
condi- tion, where a persuasive message was not even presented. There was, however, a significant effect of message condition on attitude certainty. As illustrated in 4. RESISTING PERSUASION AND ATTITUDE CERTAINTY 71 Table 4.1, certainty increased relative to the control when participants resisted a message they believed to be strong, but not when they resisted a message believed to be weak. This effect was particularly telling given that the “strong” and “weak” persuasive messages did
choosing a course of action that rejects another’s request is likely perceived as increasing the sense of volition, action (vs. inaction), and thus blameworthiness for one’s bad de- cision, making the prospect of choosing an independent course of action that re- sults in now-considered failure especially unattractive (Gilovich & Medvec, 1995; Kahneman & Miller, 1986; Markman et al., 1995). To the extent that decision makers focus on how their not going along with another’s demand is an