Science: The Definitive Visual Guide
Robert Dinwiddie, Jack Challoner, Adam Hart-Davis
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
Encompassing everything from ancient Greek geometry and quantum physics to the wedge and the World Wide Web, Science is a remarkable reference book that tells the story of science from earliest times to the present day — now available in paperback!
static electricity and how it related to atoms. THE CONNECTION WITH MAGNETISM In the 17th century scientists believed electrical and magnetic forces were completely separate until, in the 1870s, British physicist James Clerk Maxwell proved they were both forms of a single phenomenon: electromagnetism 166–67 gg. THE FORMS OF ELECTRIC FIELDS In 1839 British scientist Michael Faraday 170–71 ggvisualized the shapes of electric ﬁelds and proved that static and current electricity were diﬀerent
atoms and molecules, scientists began to understand heat as a form of energy. When an object slows down because of friction, for example, the energy of the moving object is not lost—it is merely transferred as heat to the atoms and molecules of the object and its surroundings. In other words, the energy of motion, kinetic energy, changes to thermal (heat) energy. During the 1840s scientists realized that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, an idea investigated by the English scientist
formulated during a revolution in scientific thinking—the birth of experimental science—and are upheld today by the world’s scientific societies. $Recording observations Good science needs precise recording of information. These notes by the French mathematician and physicist, André-Marie Ampère, concern the magnetic properties of electrical current. &Testing theories Scientists must design experiments that are open—not to prove a preconceived theory but if possible to disprove it.
science O 1644 Returns to England and begins to work was once again safe for gentlemen. In the on the “new philosophy,” namely the ideas of same year the invisible college became the experimental science as advocated by Francis Royal Society of London for the Bacon (see pp.68–69) some 20 years before. Promotion of Natural Knowledge, He becomes one of the leading exponents of abbreviated to the Royal Society. Boyle science based on observation and facts, rather was one of the founding Fellows.
between. Polarizing ﬁlters act by absorbing the waves oscillating in one direction only, Light-bending materials Polarizing ﬁlter When light passes from one material into another, for example from air into glass or water, it changes direction; light is refracted (bent) as it goes through the interface. This refraction makes ponds look shallower than they really are, and can make a spoon appear bent when it stands in a glass of water. Light travels more slowly through denser materials, such as