Sustainable Living: the Role of Whole Life Costs and Values
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Achieving a sustainable building is not just a matter of design and construction: what happens once the building is occupied is absolutely critical.
This book shows how the choices designers, developers and building users make impact on sustainability over the life span of the building. The authors show how a holistic approach considering costs, energy use, environmental impact, global warming potential as well as items which a usually disregarded such as finishes, furniture and appliances is needed to achieve best practice.
consideration of environmental impacts under the categories of resource use, human health and ecological consequences. LCA includes the entire life, including extraction and processing of raw materials, supply of energy, manufacturing, transportation and distribution, use/ re-use/maintenance, recycling and final disposal of the product. Depending on the system boundary selected, life cycle analysis is of two kinds. 1. Cradle to grave analysis – analysis of the entire life of a material or product
a steady decrease in energy used by the kitchen range (from 13% in 1971 to 7% in 2000), the number of other appliances used in the actual cooking process has been rising. In the UK during the period 1970 to 2000, energy use in cooking was reduced by 16% (DTI 2002: p. 23). The conventional oven has largely been replaced by the fan-assisted oven, leading to an approximate 25% reduction in energy use (Wright and Baines 1986: p. 55). With more women entering the paid workforce, ‘heat and eat’ has
the US government from as early as the 1930s (Kirk and Dell ´ısola 1995: p. 6). Since the 1960s the principles of LCC have been applied to buildings and in the USA all buildings have been evaluated based on life cycle costs since 1978 as a requirement of the National Energy Conservation Policy (Kirk and Dell ´ısola 1995: p. 8). The principles of LCC have also been adopted in other cost evaluation techniques such as costs-in-use (Stone 1980), ultimate costs and terotechnology – a combination of
person in the world (Wackernagel et al. 1999: p. 385). The footprint calculation, although designed for the individual, seems to be a possible method of evaluating the environmental impact of a building, as buildings are demanded by and used by individuals, although the data required for such a calculation would be numerous. Environmental impacts of building construction Like other human activities, building construction also contributes to environmental impacts, which can either be:
Replacement cycles for building elements/materials, appliances and furniture for a New Zealand house The number of times the components have to be replaced during the lifetime of the building is given by the formula: ðUseful life of the building=useful life of the componentÞ À 1 Table 6.2 Comparison of embodied energy intensity of building materials in New Zealand and Australia Material Aluminium Aluminium New Zealand Alcorn & Wood (1998) virgin foil Bitumen Cement Ceramic Concrete, ready