The German Unemployed: Experiences and Consequences of Mass Unemployment from the Weimar Republic to the Third Reich
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Unemployment was perhaps the major problem confronting European society at the time in which this book was first published in 1987, and is arguably still the case today. This collection of essays by British and German historians contributes to the debate by taking a close look at unemployment in the Weimar Republic.
• What groups were most severely affected, and why?
• How did they react? How effective were welfare and job creation schemes?
• Did unemployment fuel social instability and political extremism?
• How far was unemployment a cause of the collapse of the Weimar Republic and the triumph of the Third Reich?
• Did the Nazis solve the unemployment problem by peaceful Keynsianism or through massive rearmament?
This book is ideal for students of history, sociology, and economics.
Deutschen Feld- und Besatzungsheer (Berlin, 1934), section ii, p. 5; Wilhelm Deist, ‘Bemerkungen zur militärischen Demobilmachung 1918’ (paper delivered to the German Historical Institute and Open University Conference on ‘Social Processes of Demobilisation after the First World War in Germany, France and Great Britain’, London, May 1981), p. 4. 13. Joseph Koeth, ‘Die wirtschaftliche Demobilmachung. Ihre Aufgabe und ihre Organe’ in Handbuch der Politik, vol. iv, Der wirtschaftliche Wiederaufbau
had been transferred to crisis benefit, as well as those who had found a job after their unemployment benefit expired but then were dismissed before they had become eligible again for unemployment benefit. Some were employees who had found an insured job but had become unemployed again after 13 weeks. Those in the worst situation were manual and white- collar workers in reciept of crisis benefit who had been continuously unemployed for VA years (13A years for the over 40s). Those caught in a
Rechtsentwicklung, p. 5; cf. Spliedt and Broecker, Gesetz, p. 414; R. Jonas, Die Grundlagen der wertschaffender Arbeitslosenfürsorge (Berlin, 1931), p. 12. 55. Cf. B. Broecker, ‘Die Beschäftigung von Arbeitslosen’ in A WO, vol. 7,1932, pp. 129-38; CARITAS, vol. 37,1932, p. 487ff. From Unemployment Insurance to Compulsory Labour 107 56. Para. 217 A V AVG; cf. Spliedt and Broecker, Gesetz, p. 411 and para. 75d AVAVG after the July NotVO 1930. 57. Kobrak, ‘Arbeiterfürsorge’ , p. 181. 58. Ibid.
employees in Frankfurt between the end of 1932 and the end of 1934 was mainly caused not by the effectiveness of political measures directed against women’s work, but rather by the behaviour and job planning of women themselves, although their behaviour of course gave the state measures the appearance of actually succeeding.54 The economic upswing beginning in the middle of 1933 first brought the (overwhelmingly male) core workforce back into their jobs as many middling and large firms resumed
majority of the volunteers were already involved in church youth clubs and girls’ circles. The scheme was run on clearly confessional lines, although it served from the point of view of the organisers less to convert the heathen than to consolidate the influence of the church over what was already largely its own flock. As the organiser put it: ‘The Church must realise that the voluntary labour service offers opportunities for pastoral care [seelsorgerische Möglichkeiten] that no pastor can