The Japanese Industrial Economy: Late Development and Cultural Causation (Routledge Studies in the Growth Economies of Asia)
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This book reveals that the manipulation of culture was of more importance than the character of the original cultural stock in explaining Japan's modern industrialization. Thus the features of private enterprise culture that are so often isolated as keys to the nation's historical competitiveness may have been only temporary reflections of this wider process of cultural engineering: a necessary input into the program of technology transfer and late development.
This book provides a highly reliable guide to the industrial economy and history and covers a wide ground; it will be of great interest to those involved in Asian studies, Japanese studies, plus economists and professionals in business and enterprise culture.
Second World War and the longer aggression against China (1931–45) (Minami 1986: 181). The Introduction 13 impacts continued after 1945 under the government of the Western allies, the Supreme Command Allied Powers or SCAP (1945–52), which rapidly introduced reforms in labour law, land tenure and industrial structure (with the dissolution of the zaibatsu) that were designed to introduce democracy rather than increase economic growth. The establishment of the Diet as the core of the democratic
modern analysts as Shrum or Hughes (Bijker et al. 1987, Shrum 1985). In the end the ‘American system’ did not diffuse throughout Birmingham or London as a result of such searches, and this was almost certainly because of its highly institutionalised features. Machine arrangements and related work processes were embedded in a distinctive technological system, itself evolved within a non-British enterprise, factor, market and skills environment. Vertical institutional transfer may be of greater
which see further in Chapter 6) is conducive to technological change in so far as greater certainty induces greater investment in skills and machines and inter-firm co-operation becomes institutionalised and familiar (Fransman 1990). Of equal signiﬁcance are the more general claims of Mansﬁeld and others that very large ﬁrms are the most likely to institute chains of incremental innovation, which may be centred on diffusion of existing and newly transferred technique but are not necessarily
a single professor of industrial art, the ﬁrst cohort of thirty-two professors to the new Tokyo School of Engineering in 1871 were all British. Industrialising Germany seems to have replaced other foreign inﬂuences as a source of institutions, ideas and technologies around the 1890s, during a phase when Japan was investing increasingly in heavy and military industries. Germany, led by Prussia, was also a late developer, whose industrialisation was associated with a very strong state presence,
Centre in 1951. As with technology, this institutional modelling involved frequent trials and errors, with failed experiments in German-style management techniques replaced by Americaninspired mixtures of Taylorism or scientific management alongside the qualitycontrol emphases associated with the inﬂuence of Edward Deming (Tsutsui 1998: 152–200). This confusion of incremental, ad hoc experimentation may be seen as a component of the broader process whereby cultural engineering moved well beyond