The Philosophy of Clint Eastwood (Philosophy Of Popular Culture)
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Famous for his masculine swagger and gritty roles, American cultural icon Clint Eastwood has virtually defined the archetype of the tough lawman. Beginning with his first on-screen appearance in the television series Rawhide (1959–1965) and solidified by his portrayal of the "Man with No Name" in Sergio Leone's "Dollars" trilogy (1964–1966), he rocketed to stardom and soon became one of the most recognizable actors in Hollywood. The Philosophy of Clint Eastwood examines the philosophy and psychology behind this versatile and controversial figure, exploring his roles as actor, musician, and director.
Led by editors Richard T. McClelland and Brian B. Clayton, the contributors to this timely volume discuss a variety of topics. They explore Eastwood's arresting critique and revision of the traditional western in films such as Unforgiven (1992), as well as his attitudes toward violence and the associated concept of masculinity from the Dirty Harry movies (starting in 1971) to Gran Torino (2008). The essays also chart a shift in Eastwood's thinking about the value of so-called rugged individualism, an element of many of his early films, already questioned in Play Misty for Me (1971) and decisively rejected in Million Dollar Baby (2004).
Clint Eastwood has proven to be a dynamic actor, a perceptive and daring director, as well as an intriguing public figure. Examining subjects such as the role of civil morality and community in his work, his use of themes of self-reliance and religious awareness, and his cinematic sensibility, The Philosophy of Clint Eastwood will provide readers with a deeper sense of Eastwood as an artist and illuminate the philosophical conflicts and resolutions that drive his films.
captured and then tortured and killed by Little Bill; Munny survives, but at the cost of reverting to the violent self he abandoned for the sake of his beloved wife. Eastwood recognized how the moral gravity of the story of Unforgiven differed from his prior Westerns: “In the past, there were a lot of people killed gratuitously in my pictures, and what I liked about this story was that people aren’t killed, and acts of violence aren’t perpetrated, without there being certain consequences.”31 The
self, the good, solid people of Madison County exist at the opposite extreme, mired in conventionality, routine, and unreflectiveness. Their everydayness normally manifests itself as blind adherence to custom and social expectation, but we also see it in the gentle cruelty that enforces social norms through reputation and gossip. They therefore represent the everydayness that is a horror for Percy’s Binx Bolling, and that Francesca Johnson also recognizes as a threat. It is the suffocation of
VIII.3, 1156a 17–19 (Broadie and Rowe), 211. 4. Aristotle, NE VIII.3, 1156b 7–10 (Broadie and Rowe), 211. 128 Jason Grinnell 5. Aristotle, NE VIII.3, 1156b 12–13 (Broadie and Rowe), 211. 6. For difficulties of elders with youth, parents with children, gods with mortals, kings with commoners, see NE VIII.7, 1158b 12–1159a 5 (Broadie and Rowe), 215–216. For justice in such unequal relationships, see NE VIII.11, 1161a 10–1161b 10, 220–221, and NE IX.2, 1165a 14–36, 226. 7. The term Aristotle
Earlier in the film, Harry seems to reject the vigilante officer’s claim that “it’s not a question of whether or not to use violence. There simply is no other way.” Yet he himself resorts to violence in killing Briggs, presumably out of belief that there is no viable alternative. 152 Karen D. Hoffman 8. Pauline Kael, For Keeps (New York: Penguin, 1994), 421. 9. Ibid., 540. 10. Ibid., 524. While I am not convinced that the world over which Callahan’s gun presides is a completely nihilistic one,
four words and lasting one to two seconds, followed by forty or more seconds of silence, watching brain activity by real-time fMRI and using noise-canceling earphones to screen out ambient and machine noises. What they found was the spontaneous appearance in the primary auditory cortex (PAC) of a pattern of spiking neural signals at roughly fifteen seconds (post silence), thirty seconds, and forty seconds. They occurred in the speech-sensitive area of 178 Richard T. McClelland the PAC and are