The Soviet-Afghan War: How a Superpower Fought and Lost
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The War in Afghanistan (1979-1989) has been called "the Soviet Union's Vietnam War," a conflict that pitted Soviet regulars against a relentless, elusive, and ultimately unbeatable Afghan guerrilla force (the mujahideen). The hit-and-run bloodletting across the war's decade tallied more than 25,000 dead Soviet soldiers plus a great many more casualties and further demoralized a USSR on the verge of disintegration.
In The Soviet-Afghan War the Russian general staff takes a close critical look at the Soviet military's disappointing performance in that war in an effort to better understand what happened and why and what lessons should be taken from it. Lester Grau and Michael Gress's expert English translation of the general staff's study offers the very first publication in any language of this important and illuminating work.
Surprisingly, this was a study the general staff never intended to write, initially viewing the war in Afghanistan as a dismal aberration in Russian military history. The history of the 1990s has, of course, completely demolished that belief, as evidenced by the Russian Army's subsequent engagements with guerrilla forces in Chechnya, Azerbaijan, Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan, and elsewhere. As a result, Russian officers decided to take a much closer look at the Red Army's experiences in the Afghan War.
Their study presents the Russian view of how the war started, how it progressed, and how it ended; shows how a modern mechanized army organized and conducted a counter-guerrilla war; chronicles the major battles and operations; and provides valuable insights into Soviet tactics, strategy, doctrine, and organization across a wide array of military branches. The editors' incisive preface and commentary help contextualize the Russian view and alert the reader to blind spots in the general staff's thinking about the war.
This one-of-a-kind document provides a powerful case study on how yet another modern mechanized army imprudently relied upon the false promise of technology to defeat a determined guerrilla foe. Along the way, it vividly reveals the increasing disillusionment of Soviet soldiers, how that disillusion seeped back into Soviet society, and how it contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union. The Red Army had fought their war to a military draw but that was not enough to stave off political defeat at home. The Soviet-Afghan War helps clarify how such a surprising demise could have materialized in the backyard of the Cold War's other great superpower.
0-7006-1185-1 (cloth : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-7006-1186-X (paper : alk. paper) 1. Afghanistan—History—Soviet occupation, 1979-1989. 2. Soviet Union—Military policy. 3. Soviet Union—History, Military. I. Grau, Lester W. II. Gress, Michael A. III. Series. DS371.2.S665 2002 958.104'5—dc21 2001006560 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American
toward each other to a link-up site. There were several methods of conducting a sweep. In mountain regions, subunits can spread out from a central point in the sweep area moving along valleys in various directions, thus squeezing the enemy into the mountains where they can finally be captured or destroyed. Line to deploy from helicopter column Map 15. Helicopter-inserted blocking positions Dismount Point Blocking Group #1 Dismount Point Blocking Group #2 Map 16. Encirclement with
Afghanistan did not differ particularly from the ambush laid out and recommended in the regulations and training manuals. However, there were several peculiarities. The ambushes organized by combined arms subunits in Afghanistan often functioned outside the framework of a simple reconnaissance mission.28 The Soviets used ambushes to 126 THE SOVIET-AFGHAN WAR reduce the amount of personnel, weapons, ammunition, food, and other supplies available to the resistance. Ambushes served to inflict
interfere in Afghanistan's internal affairs. This treaty held until 1919, when Afghan troops crossed into British India, seized a village, and tried to incite a popular revolt in the region. The British responded with a third invasion-and the Third Anglo-Afghan War. The political settlement resulted in Afghanistan's full independence from British influence. THE SOVIET UNION'S TURN From 1919 until 1978, Afghanistan's foreign policy balanced the demands of her immediate neighbors and those of
240mm M-240 mortar were effective. These mortars were towed into battle behind a truck, BTR, BMP, or tank. They are relatively lightweight and can be manhandled into a new firing position by their crews. Their rounds pack significant explosive power and they have a wide bursting radius. At the same time, since they are towed, they are less maneuverable than self-propelled artillery, and the mortar crews are vulnerable to enemy fire. The Soviet forces used the 240mm 2S4 self-propelled TuVpan