Venomous Snakes: Envenoming, Therapy (Reptiles - Classification, Evolution and Systems)
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This is a comprehensive monograph on the problems of intoxication incurred by snake venom. This publication is primarily intended for those at all levels of health care, for members of rescue teams, surgeries and emergency hospitals, as well as specialised workplaces and intensive care units. Providing didactic instructions for first aid and treatment procedures, information is also presented on venomous snakes, the fundaments of their morphology and behaviour, snakebite prevention, the composition of snake venom, symptoms of envenoming, plus first aid in the event of snakebite for non-professionals, travellers, terrain biologists, and breeders. This book features an updated alphabetical list of types and sub-types of all venomous snakes, including their home ranges, as well as a comprehensive index, list of abbreviations, glossary, and colour picture insert with one hundred photographs of venomous snakes.
mice is 6 mg/kg, which is approximately thirty times less than the effectiveness of toxins from sea snakes, taipans, or Indian cobras. Snakebite incidence, morbidity, and mortality of envenoming vary subject to venom quantity, which in B. arietans is theoretically sufficient to kill 4-5 persons, while in B. gabonica it can be up to 1 g of dry matter. In terms of their activities, the venoms of the African puff adders (Bitis) predominantly affect the cardiovascular and hemocoagulation system; they
(Bitis gabonica) inflates its neck. Another example is the opening of the mouth to display the different color inside, which could function so as to make the creature more visible and simulate an attack. For instance, as the names suggest, the inner part of mouth of the western cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma) is white, and in the black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) it is black. The speed and behavior of venomous snakes relates to the safe distance one can stand from them as well
dozen minutes. Neurotoxins of some viperids (Viperidae), for example the Russel’s viper (Daboia russelli) or the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus), which are partly responsible for killing prey and immobilization, are usually displayed in humans by insignificant dysfunction in the area of cranial nerves, and any such effect may not be at all apparent. The most distinct difference in action of a dose of toxin, depending on weight of the victim, can be seen in venoms with an
associated with a higher incidence of allergic reaction. Respiratory insufficiency may occur even upon administration of adequate antivenom, however, with a shorter period of persistence of the insufficiency. If antivenom is applied only upon development of neurotoxic symptomatology, its effectiveness is reduced, in some cases of affected tissues, e.g. N. nigricollis, no positive effect may become manifest. Slight elevation and moderate cooling of the affected limb is desirable; pain should be
hemorrhaging are typically not involved in such envenomings. Neurological symptomatology is the most serious. Developing in the order of minutes or hours, it starts with a disorder of neuromuscular junctions of cranial nerves - ptosis, external ophtalmophlegia including unfocused or double vision, increased salivation, dysphagia, dysarthria, and facial muscle weakness, and follows as overall muscle weakness, loss of reflexes and limited paralysis of striated muscles. As the affection develops,