Volcanoes: Global Perspectives
John P. Lockwood
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
Volcanoes are essential elements in the delicate global balance of elemental forces that govern both the dynamic evolution of the Earth and the nature of Life itself. Without volcanic activity, life as we know it would not exist on our planet. Although beautiful to behold, volcanoes are also potentially destructive, and understanding their nature is critical to prevent major loss of life in the future.
Richly illustrated with over 300 original color photographs and diagrams the book is written in an informal manner, with minimum use of jargon, and relies heavily on first-person, eye-witness accounts of eruptive activity at both "red" (effusive) and "grey" (explosive) volcanoes to illustrate the full spectrum of volcanic processes and their products. Decades of teaching in university classrooms and fieldwork on active volcanoes throughout the world have provided the authors with unique experiences that they have distilled into a highly readable textbook of lasting value. Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion, Suggestions for Further Reading, and a comprehensive list of source references make this work a major resource for further study of volcanology.
Volcanoes maintains three core foci:
- Global perspectives explain volcanoes in terms of their tectonic positions on Earth and their roles in earth history
- Environmental perspectives describe the essential role of volcanism in the moderation of terrestrial climate and atmosphere
- Humanitarian perspectives discuss the major influences of volcanoes on human societies. This latter is especially important as resource scarcities and environmental issues loom over our world, and as increasing numbers of people are threatened by volcanic hazards
Volcanologists, advanced undergraduate, and graduate students in earth science and related degree courses, and volcano enthusiasts worldwide.
A companion website is also available for this title at www.wiley.com/go/lockwood/volcanoes
recognized the existence of former volcanoes in a landscape, and came to epitomize the School of Volcanists – those who believed that volcanic activity had been more common in the world than people imagined. Abraham Gottlob Werner (1749 –1817), a German professor of mineralogy from the School of Mines in Freiburg, developed a competing geognosic theory of geology, based on biblical interpretation that was widely embraced by the religiously conservative “establishment” of the day. He posited that
smells and sounds that you must close your eyes to imagine. French volcanologists loosely divide the world’s volcanoes into two general types: Les volcans rouges (red volcanoes) and Les volcans gris (grey volcanoes). “Red volcanoes” are those volcanoes that are mostly found on mid-oceanic islands and are characterized by effusive activity (flowing red lava). The “grey volcanoes,” generally found near continental margins or in island chains close to the edges of continents, are characterized by
detail they commonly consist of numerous short fairly straight segments. The detailed courses of many are obviously governed by preexisting fractures, Dikes cutting pyroclastic debris tend to be regular and sharply bounded at deep levels within tephra cones, but may become very irregular or even feather out into the tephra at high levels, where confining stresses are low, and the material surrounding the intrusion is poorly consolidated. A spectacular example of a dike-fed fissure intersecting a
smooth vitrified matter, and forming the channel of a river of fire, which swept down the steep side of the mountain with amazing velocity. The sight of this covered aqueduct or, if I may be allowed to coin a word, this pyroduct – filled with mineral fusion, and flowing under our feet at the rate of twenty miles an hour, was truly startling. One glance at the fearful spectacle was worth a journey of a thousand miles. We gazed upon the scene with a kind of ecstasy, knowing that we had been
ratio of 14C to other, more common carbon isotopes (13C and 12C). When an organism is alive, the carbon in its tissues reflects this ratio, but upon death radioactive decay lowers that ratio at a constant rate. Libby identified the decay rate for 14C (half-life: 5730 +/− 40 years), which allowed the calculation of time elapsed since death based upon the proportions of carbon isotopes. Radiocarbon dating of carbonaceous material preserved beneath lava flows or within pyroclastic flows is the